Irish low-cost airline Ryanair has announced that the price of its tickets will be lower by an average of seven percent this year as part of efforts to increase market share and compete with increasingly fierce competition.The reduction was announced as part of the presentation of business results in the fiscal year ending in March. The data show a jump in Ryanair’s annual net profit by 43 percent, to 1,2 billion euros. Revenues increased 16 percent to 6,5 billion euros. The company also noted that profits in the fourth fiscal quarter were affected by air traffic disruptions following the terrorist attacks in Brussels, and lower ticket prices due to falling oil prices.”If a price war breaks out in Europe, Ryanair will win itSaid Ryanair CEO Michael O’Leary, according to a BBC report. Ryanair uses a business model that envisages a reduction in the price of tickets according to the need to charge the aircraft. Despite the announced lower prices, Ryanair expects a 13 percent higher profit in fiscal 2017, with lower ticket prices expected to be depreciated by more passengers.Ryanair also reiterated that Britain should remain in the EU, adding that they had launched an appropriate campaign to promote such a position. “We believe that Britain’s exit from the EU would harm the economic growth and consumer confidence in the UK in the next two to three years, given the start of negotiations on leaving the EU and the return to the single market in very uncertain conditions. “, It is stated in the announcement.In the first fiscal quarter to the end of June, business results will be affected by strikes by employees at airports in Italy, Greece, Belgium and France, as well as earlier Easter holidays, and a weak pound ahead of the June referendum on Britain’s EU membership.
As part of the project “Tastes of Srijem and Slavonia”, the Vukovar-Srijem County Tourist Board presented new traditional equipment to project members and presented new promotional material for a key tourist product – cultural tourism of Vukovar-Srijem County, brochure “Wonderful journey with the golden heart of Croatia”.”These are ceramic dishes made to order. Namely, such utensils are no longer in serial production, because they were used in this area at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. ” – said the director of the VSŽ Tourist Board Rujana Bušić-SrpakPromotional material of the key tourist product – cultural tourism of Vukovar – Srijem County, was realized with the support of the Croatian Tourist Board for tourist boards in underdeveloped areas and with the support of Vukovar – Srijem County. Cultural tourism is one of the basic and most recognizable tourist products of the easternmost Croatian county. “Given the numerous promotional activities during the year, a new edition of the printed material was a necessity. Despite the online promotion, many visitors before planning a trip want to have in their hands tangible material that is kept as an invitation before the trip of memories after it. The “Wonderful Journey” brochure is just that, an invitation and a souvenir. ” Bušić-Srpak pointed out and added that the brochure presents the most important cultural and historical monuments, traditional cultural tangible and intangible heritage, shrines, and contains a list of the most important cultural events. The brochure also contains a brief overview and other offers without which a visit to Vukovar-Srijem County cannot pass.Photo: TZVSZBy the way, in 2016, the Vukovar-Srijem County achieved an increase in overnight stays and arrivals, thus 71.424 arrivals (10.854) and 111.036.00 overnight stays (+ 523). Out of the total number of arrivals, domestic tourists realized 54.363 arrivals (71,79%), and foreign tourists 17.061 (28,21%). Tourists from Germany, Italy and Slovenia spent the most nights, followed by tourists from BiH, Serbia, Austria, Switzerland and the Netherlands. The Germans Županja vinkovci Ilok Data by tourist boards in 2016:Cardiff
Photo: CBSIN THE FIRST TWO MONTHS GROWTH IN ARRIVALS AND NIGHTSAccording to the eVisitor system, which in addition to recording the turnover of registered tourists in commercial and non-commercial accommodation facilities in Croatia, has been integrating eCrew (nautical charter) data since the beginning of this year, in February 2017 the number of foreign tourist arrivals increased by 5,7 % (125,446 arrivals), while the number of arrivals of domestic tourists increased by 11,38% (85.203 arrivals).The number of nights spent by foreign tourists increased by 10,46% (329.766 nights), while the number of nights spent by domestic tourists increased by 10,97% (210.717 nights). In total, the number of arrivals increased by 7,93% (210.649 arrivals) in February, while the number of overnight stays increased by 10,66% (540.483 overnight stays).See all information on tourist traffic statistics in February 2017 here The total passenger traffic at airports in January 2017 amounted to 218 thousand, which is an increase of 2016% compared to January 199, when passenger traffic amounted to 9,7 thousand, according to data from the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS).In January 2017, the growth of passenger traffic, compared to January 2016, was recorded by Zagreb Airport (7,4%), Split Airport (15,8%), Dubrovnik Airport (24,9%) and Zadar Airport 6,8%). The largest number of passengers in international traffic was realized with German airports and shows an increase of 12,0% compared to January 2016.The total number of aircraft landings and take-offs at airports in January 2017 was 4, which is an increase of 061% compared to the number of landings and take-offs of 4 in January 020.
LinkedIn In this study, researchers transformed 60 randomly-chosen videos of politicians’ speeches into stick figures. This prevented participants’ ratings from being influenced by the speaker’s familiarity or attractiveness. The stick figures’ body movements were then rated on their competence, dominance, trustworthiness, extraversion, agreeableness, calmness/emotional stability, anxiety, conscientiousness, and openness by 60 people.Speakers whose body movements were rated as more dominant, more extraverted, and less agreeable received more applause at the end of their speech. A small link was observed between emotional stability and applause, as well as trustworthiness and applause. However, body movements rated as competent and conscientious did not influence the amount of applause speakers received.In addition, no link was found between any of the trait ratings and the amount of heckling each speaker received. This suggests that positive perceptions of a speaker’s body movement influences us favorably, but negative perceptions do not influence us negatively.Collectively, this research offers further support for the importance of our body language in communication. The authors say that body movement, “appears to be an important nonverbal communication channel that conveys affective and social information.” However, the researchers point out that in this study it is impossible to know whether the body movements triggered the applause or the applause triggered the body movements.The results of this study are especially notable because they show that in a real-world setting, a speaker’s body movements influence others’ perceptions of the speaker and the message. Email Pinterest In many instances, we must make broad inferences about others based on limited information. Often when we meet someone briefly we may already believe we know what their personality is like—we might have an idea how friendly, intelligent, or trustworthy this person is. If we were not able to do so, practices like job interviews and speed dating would be completely useless.Researchers have begun studying how we make these judgments based off of brief observations of others (called “thin slices” of behavior). These thin slices of behavior are especially important to politicians. Oftentimes, their campaigns rely on short 30-second advertisements, or voters see a short clip of a political speech on the news.The importance of thin slices of behavior in the political arena brings up one important question: Just how much do these thin slices actually influence our perceptions of politicians? In one study published in the journal Personality and Individual Differences, researchers sought to examine how the amount of applause a politician receives after a speech is influenced by his/her body movements. Share Share on Twitter Share on Facebook
Share In an article published in the journal Environment International, researchers from Inserm (Inserm Unit 1085 – IRSET, the Institute of Research in Environmental and Occupational Health, Rennes), in association with the Laboratory for Developmental and Educational Psychology, LPDE (Rennes 2 University), provide new evidence of neurotoxicity in humans from pyrethroid insecticides, which are found in a wide variety of products and uses.An increase in the urinary levels of two pyrethroid metabolites (3-PBA and cis-DBCA) in children is associated with a significant decrease in their cognitive performances , particularly verbal comprehension and working memory. This study was carried out on nearly 300 mother and child pairs from the PELAGIE cohort (Brittany).Pyrethroid exposure Email Share on Facebook LinkedIn Share on Twitter Pinterest Pyrethroids constitute a family of insecticides widely used in a variety of sectors: agriculture (various crops), veterinary (antiparasitics) and domestic (lice shampoo, mosquito products). Their mode of action involves blocking neurotransmission in insects, leading to paralysis. Because of their efficacy and relative safety for humans and mammals, they have replaced older compounds (organochorides, organophosphates, carbamate) considered more toxic.Exposure of children to pyrethroids is common. It is different to adult exposure, due to the closer proximity of children to ground-level dust (which stores pollutants), more frequent hand-to-mouth contact, lice shampoos, etc. In children, pyrethroids are mainly absorbed via the digestive system, but are also absorbed through the skin. They are rapidly metabolised in the liver, and mainly eliminated in the urine as metabolites within 48 hours.Given these elements and the mode of action (neurotoxicity) of pyrethroid insecticides, the researchers proposed the hypothesis of a possible effect of these contaminants on the nervous system and its development in children.Contribution of the PELAGIE mother-child cohortPregnancy is also an important period of life for the future health of the child. For this reason, the researchers studied the PELAGIE mother-child cohort established between 2002 and 2006, which monitors 3,500 mother-child pairs. This cohort simultaneously considers exposure to pyrethroid insecticides during foetal life and childhood.A total of 287 women, randomly selected from the PELAGIE cohort and contacted successfully on their child’s sixth birthday, agreed to participate in this study.Two psychologists visited them at home. One assessed the child’s neurocognitive performances using the WISC scale (verbal comprehension index, VCI, and working memory index, WMI). The other psychologist characterised the family environment and stimuli that might have had a role on the child’s intellectual development, collected a urine sample from the child, and collected dust samples.Exposure to pyrethroid insecticides was estimated by measuring levels of five metabolites (3-PBA, 4-F-3-PBA, cis-DCCA, trans-DCCA and cis-DBCA) in urine from the mother (collected between the 6th and 19th weeks of pregnancy) and from the child (collected on his/her 6th birthday).A decrease observed in child cognitive performancesResults show that an increase in children’s urinary levels of two metabolites (3 PBA and cis-DBCA) was associated with a significant decrease in cognitive performances, whereas no association was observed for the other three metabolites (4-F-3-PBA, cis-DCCA and trans-DCCA). With respect to metabolite concentrations during pregnancy, there was no demonstrable association with neurocognitive scores.“Although these observations must be reproduced in further studies in order to draw definite conclusions, they indicate the potential responsibility of low doses of deltamethrine in particular (since the metabolite cis-DBCA is its main metabolite, and selective for it), and pyrethroid insecticides in general (since the metabolite 3-BPA is a degradation product of some twenty of these insecticides),” explains Cécile Chevrier, Inserm Research Fellow, the main author of this work.“The consequences of a cognitive deficit in children for their learning ability and social development constitute a handicap for the individual and for society. The research effort needs to be pursued in order to identify causes that could be targeted by preventive measures,” emphasises Jean-François Viel, a co-author of this work.
Share on Facebook Previous studies have led researchers to believe that individuals with social anxiety disorder/ social phobia have too low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin. A new study carried out at Uppsala University, however, shows that the situation is exactly the opposite. Individuals with social phobia make too much serotonin. The more serotonin they produce, the more anxious they are in social situations.Many people feel anxious if they have to speak in front of an audience or socialise with others. If the anxiety becomes a disability, it may mean that the person suffers from social phobia which is a psychiatric disorder.Social phobia is commonly medicated using SSRI compounds. These change the amount of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. Based on previous studies, it was believed that individuals with social phobia had too little serotonin and that SSRIs increased the amount of available serotonin. In a new study published in the scientific journal JAMA Psychiatry, researchers from the Department of Psychology at Uppsala University show that individuals with social phobia make too much serotonin. Share on Twitter LinkedIn Email Share Pinterest The research team, led by professors Mats Fredrikson and Tomas Furmark, used a so-called PET camera and a special tracer to measure chemical signal transmission by serotonin in the brain. They found that patients with social phobia produced too much serotonin in a part of the brain’s fear centre, the amygdala. The more serotonin produced, the more anxious the patients were in social situations.A nerve cell, which sends signals using serotonin, first releases serotonin into the space between the nerve cells. The nerve signal arises when serotonin attaches itself to the receptor cell. The serotonin is then released from the receptor and pumped back to the original cell.‘Not only did individuals with social phobia make more serotonin than people without such a disorder, they also pump back more serotonin. We were able to show this in another group of patients using a different tracer which itself measures the pump mechanism. We believe that this is an attempt to compensate for the excess serotonin active in transmitting signals’, says Andreas Frick, a doctoral student at Uppsala University Department of Psychology.This discovery is a major leap forward when it comes to identifying changes in the brain’s chemical messengers in people who suffer from anxiety. Earlier research has shown that nerve activity in the amygdala is higher in people with social phobia and thus that the brain’s fear centre is over-sensitive. The new findings indicate that a surplus of serotonin is part of the underlying reason.‘Serotonin can increase anxiety and not decrease it as was previously often assumed’, says Andreas Frick.
The study found that male college students who were given falsely low results on a handgrip strength test exaggerated their height by three-quarters of an inch on average, reported having more romantic relationships, claimed to be more aggressive and athletic, and showed less interest in stereotypically feminine consumer products.By contrast, men who received average score results, and whose masculinity was therefore not threatened, did not exaggerate those characteristics. The findings, researchers say, underscore the pressure men feel to live up to gender stereotypes and the ways in which they might reinstate a threatened masculinity.‘We know that being seen as masculine is very important for a lot of men,’ said lead author Sapna Cheryan, a UW associate professor of psychology. ‘We discovered that the things that men were using to assert their masculinity were the very things that are used as signals of identity.’The research involved male students at Stanford University, where Cheryan received her doctorate in psychology. The students were told they were participating in research on how exertion impacts decision-making and were asked to squeeze a handheld device with each hand.Researchers marked their scores on sheets that showed bogus bell curves representing male and female results, with the female curve clearly lower than the male one. Participants were scored either in the middle of the female or the male curve, suggesting that their grip was either weak or average.They were then asked to fill out a questionnaire asking about their height, number of previous relationships, various personality traits and their interest in products that skewed male or female, along with ‘distracter questions’ about things like college major that were intended to allay potential suspicion about the study.Cheryan said the consistent exaggeration about height among the group who thought they scored lower was particularly surprising.‘Height is something you think would be fixed, but how tall you say you are is malleable, at least for men,’ she said.Though the study focused exclusively on men, Cheryan noted that women also feel pressure to live up to gender ideals of femininity, such as being people-focused and nurturing. If women believe they are falling short of those expectations, Cheryan said, they might make choices with potentially negative consequences to demonstrate that they fit gender norms — for example, avoiding classes in traditionally male fields such as science and technology.Cheryan got the idea for the experiments from a men’s fitness magazine she was reading while working out at the gym several years ago. The magazine had a feature that asked men on the street how much they could bench press and then brought them into a gym to put their statements to the test.Most couldn’t bench what they claimed they could, and that got Cheryan thinking: What would those men do, she wondered, now that their masculinity was threatened? Would they acknowledge that they weren’t as strong as they perhaps thought? Try to bolster their manliness in response?So Cheryan devised the handgrip experiment and a second one that required a male group of students to take a computer-based masculinity test with multiple-choice questions about consumer preferences and personal attributes.In the second experiment, the participants were told the median score on the test was 72 out of 100, with 100 being ‘completely masculine,’ and were randomly given a score of 26 or 73. They were then asked about a range of products they could receive as compensation. As with the handgrip experiment, the participants who thought they scored lower were less interested in more feminine consumer products.‘This research shows that men are under very strong prescriptive norms to be a certain way, and they work hard to correct the image they project when their masculinity is under threat,’ said co-author Benoît Monin, a professor of organizational behavior and psychology at Stanford UniversityThe findings might seem amusing, but other studies have found that men compensate for a lack of masculinity in ways that aren’t as innocuous. Men with baby faces, for example, were more likely to have assertive and hostile personalities and commit crimes than their more chiseled counterparts. Men who were told they scored low on masculinity tests were more likely to act aggressively, harass women and belittle other men.Additionally, unemployed men were more likely to instigate violence against women, and men who were not their household’s primary breadwinner were less willing to share in housework duties.Identifying the various strategies men use when their masculinity is threatened, Cheryan said, can help with understanding male behavior in real-life situations.‘Men have a lot of power in our society, and what this study shows is that some decisions can be influenced by how they’re feeling about their masculinity in the moment,’ she said.Other co-authors are Zach Katagiri and Jessica Schwartz Cameron of Stanford University. Pinterest Share on Twitter From the old Charles Atlas ads showing a scrawny male having sand kicked in his face to sitcom clichés of henpecked husbands, men have long faced pressure to live up to ideals of masculinity.Societal norms dictating that men should be masculine are powerful. And new University of Washington research finds that men who believe they fall short of those ideals might be prompted to reassert their masculinity in small but significant ways.Published last week in Social Psychology, the research sought to understand how men respond when their masculinity is threatened, and looked at two specific strategies they might employ: playing up their manliness and rejecting feminine preferences. Share Email Share on Facebook LinkedIn
Pinterest Low-income children had atypical structural brain development and lower standardized test scores, with as much as an estimated 20 percent in the achievement gap explained by development lags in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain, according to an article published online by JAMA Pediatrics.Socioeconomic disparities in school readiness and academic performance are well documented but little is known about the mechanisms underlying the influence of poverty on children’s learning and achievement.Seth D. Pollak, Ph.D., of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and colleagues analyzed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 389 typically developing children and adolescents ages 4 to 22 with complete sociodemographic and neuroimaging data. The authors measured children’s scores on cognitive and academic achievement tests and brain tissue, including gray matter of the total brain, frontal lobe, temporal lobe and hippocampus. Share on Facebook Share LinkedIn The authors found regional gray matter volumes in the brains of children below 150 percent of the federal poverty level to be 3 to 4 percentage points below the developmental norm, while the gap was larger at 8 to 10 percentage points for children below the federal poverty level. On average, children from low-income households scored four to seven points lower on standardized tests, according to the results. The authors estimate as much as 20 percent of the gap in test scores could be explained by developmental lags in the frontal and temporal lobes.“Development in these brain regions appears sensitive to the child’s environment and nurturance. These observations suggest that interventions aimed at improving children’s environments may also alter the link between childhood poverty and deficits in cognition and academic achievement,” the study concludes. Share on Twitter Email
Share But in a recent paper in the International Journal of Wellbeing, Ahuvia and colleagues identify some problems with this approach. This idea encourages us to blame misery on the individual, rather than identifying the situations that may be at the root of it. We could become too accepting of our external lot in life, rather than striving to correct the injustices in the world. Finally, there is a billion dollar self-help industry that seems to over-promise and under-deliver on the power of the mind to accomplish just about anything.Happiness comes from without.An alternative approach would be to focus on the outer conditions. We can look at ways that our businesses, schools, organizations, governments, communities and society are established, and how they facilitate or impede human well-being. One could argue that these societal factors are the greatest determinants of our well-being, by providing the infrastructure for more human needs to be met.But the researchers point out that external pathways to happiness have their own set of problems. They underestimate the capacity of the human mind to transcend its situation. For a variety of reasons such as hedonic adaptation, paradox of choice, and social comparison, improvements in societal conditions rarely seem to yield the kinds of subjective lift that we expect.An Interactionist ApproachThe researchers suggest that the true key to understanding happiness is through an interactionist approach, which “focuses on the way happiness emerges from the interaction of mind and world.” Happiness lies at the intersection of the internal and the external. This requires us to put aside simplistic ideas of happiness, in favor of an acknowledgement of the complexity and interdependence of human well-being on a variety of factors.The researchers give several examples of interactionist themes across many domains of daily life. One example is religion, which seems to enhance well-being through the interactions between internal factors such as focusing on values and expressing positive emotions and external factors, such as social engagement and community involvement.The most powerful idea from this paper is how this interactionist approach can influence the way we think about human well-being. It looks not just at the environment nor just at the mind, but instead at the ways the mind interacts with the body, the mind interacts with the environment, and the mind interacts with the community. It is in these dynamic relationships that the subjective experience of life really happens.These researchers ask, “Whose responsibility is happiness?” It does not rest solely on the individual, and it does not emerge solely from the conditions of society. The researchers suggest co-responsibility as the answer: “The idea that happiness emerges as a collective and cooperative endeavor that requires both favorable life conditions and individual effort.”Happiness comes from within and without. Share on Twitter Email This article authored by Jeremy McCarthy was originally published here on PositivePsychologyNews.com. Pinterest Share on Facebook “Happiness comes from within.”This is an idea that has been around for quite some time, bubbling up from ancient Stoic and Buddhist philosophers but being reinforced today by modern new age gurus and the modern science of positive psychology. We have the power to change our mental and emotional responses to the world around us and can, in essence, create our own happiness.This is a comforting and nowadays, popular notion. Although retraining our emotional responses can be extremely challenging, it is often easier than changing the world around us, and ultimately gives us greater control and responsibility over our own well-being. LinkedIn
This research builds on many other studies investigating the connection between mindful awareness and discrimination; however, it is distinct in showing that even very brief exposure to general mindfulness exercises can contribute to reducing implicit bias. The ten minute audio consisted of guiding the listener to become aware of body sensations and thoughts without judgement. No reference was made to race or equality or any other teaching-based content.Leuke and Gibson’s findings suggest that mindfulness — the simple practice of focusing attention on felt experience and thought — has the potential to bypass unconscious negative judgements and foster fair treatment and equality. The authors claim that this study provides evidence of mindfulness as a technique for improving race relations:“Through extended practice, mindfulness can possibly bring us closer to each other in a more profound way, a way in which we see each other truly and as possessing the same innate qualities and essence that we ourselves possess.” Share on Facebook Email Pinterest Racially prejudiced behavior can be significantly reduced by a brief mindful meditation practice, according to a February 2016 study published by the journal Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice. Extensive research has shown that even people who value equality and diversity exhibit negative reactions to people of different races. These subtle biased responses are called implicit associations and they occur automatically, outside of conscious awareness. Multiple studies have found negative unconscious attitudes to be associated with discriminatory behavior including bias in hiring decisions, communication, and trust in social interactions. With such serious consequences at stake, it is critical to understand how to move beyond implicit associations that can negatively affect decision making- without our consent or awareness.Social psychology researchers Adam Leuke, Ph.D. and Bryan Gibson, Ph.D. from the University of Central Michigan found that ten minutes of mindful meditation significantly lowered racially biased behavior. The study consisted of 124 White undergraduate students who played a computer game developed to assess how trust-based decision making was influenced by the race of other players. The participants who listened to a guided mindful meditation practice prior to playing the game were significantly more likely to trust partners equally; they favored White individuals 3% more than Black individuals. The participants who listened to control audio exhibited more racial bias by trusting White partners 14% more than Black partners. Share LinkedIn Share on Twitter